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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about 1% of the world’s population. While it can be genetic, it can also be caused by factors such as head injuries, brain tumors, or drug and alcohol use. The cause of seizures is often unclear, leading to treatments that focus on reducing electrical disturbances and preventing repeated attacks.

Half of epilepsy patients respond well to medication and experience a full quality of life with minimal seizures. However, 30% require complex drug regimens for severe attacks. For those who are resistant to medication, surgery may be an option to remove the epileptic focus in the brain.

Convulsions can sometimes be caused by temporary conditions like exposure to drugs or poisons, abnormal blood levels of sodium or glucose. These convulsions usually do not recur once the underlying issue is resolved. However, conditions such as head injuries, strokes, tumors, birth defects and metabolic diseases can lead to recurring convulsions. While epilepsy may be a lifelong condition, modern drug treatments allow most patients to lead normal lives with some eventually needing less medication or even stopping treatment altogether. EEG tests are typically used to diagnose epilepsy by recording brain waves over time and detecting changes that indicate epileptic activity requiring drug treatment.

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